Yara Utilities

Glossary

F

FAO:
the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, a specialized agency of the UN, leading international efforts to defeat hunger.
farming for health:
a concept including the utilization of farms and farm animals, plants and landscapes as a basis for promoting human mental and physical health and social well-being.
fertilizer:
substances added to the soil (solid, liquid or gaseous material) containing one or more recognized plant nutrients, such as nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus Fertilizers, which can be either organic or inorganic in nature, supply plant nutrients (plant foods), to the soil to improve the quality or quantity of plant growth. (IFA+ Soil-Net)
food chain:
a sequence of organisms from photosynthetic plants to top carnivores through a few intermediary organisms, through which energy and nutrients move within an ecosystem, transferred from one living organism to another, beginning with photosynthesis – ending with consumption and, ultimately, decomposition.
food safety:
a condition achieved by a series of actions, including processing and handling, storage and preparation, aimed at ensuring that all food is as safe as possible, reducing health hazards and preventing food poisoning and food-borne illness. Food safety policies and actions need to cover the entire food chain, from production to consumption.
food security:
a condition where all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences. Opposite: food insecurity exists when people are undernourished as a result of the physical unavailability of food, their lack of social or economic access to adequate food, and/or inadequate food utilization.
food sovereignty:
a concept defining people’s right to define their own food chain and agriculture, incl. protecting and regulating domestic agricultural production and trade in order to achieve sustainable development objectives; to determine the extent to which they want to be self-reliant; and to restrict the dumping of products in their markets.
fossil fuels:
fuels derived from the fossilized remains of plants and animals, mainly coal, petroleum and natural gas – all are non-renewable resources.
fresh water:
surface water and groundwater available for irrigation, urban and industrial use and natural watercourses.

G

greenhouse gas (GHG):
gas present in the atmosphere which reduces the loss of heat into space and therefore contributes to global temperatures through the greenhouse effect. Greenhouse gases are essential for maintaining the temperature of the Earth. However, an excess of greenhouse gases can raise the temperature of the planet to lethal levels.
Global Compact:
a set of United Nations principles intended to encourage sustainable corporate practices. They cover international human rights (protection from human rights abuses), labor standards (collective bargaining rights, elimination of forced labor, child labor and employer discrimination) and environment (precautionary principle, environmental responsibility and eco-technology).
globalization:
the increasing integration of economies and societies around the world, transcending the boundaries of the nation state, particularly through international trade and the flow of capital, ideas and people, the transfer of culture and technology, and the development of transnational regulations.
global warming:
the changes in the surface air temperature, referred to as the global temperature, brought about by the enhanced greenhouse effect, which is induced by emissions of greenhouse gases into the air.
Green Revolution:
the technology-based development that lead to large increases in agricultural productivity in the late 20th century facilitated by the introduction of high-yielding crop varieties, the increased use of pesticides and fertilizers and improved management techniques.

H

HACCP:
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point, an analysis and control program designed to avoid contamination or impurities in foodstuffs, based on principles laid down by the WHO and required by the EU for all products used in food and animal feed.
HESQ:
Health, Environment, Safety and Quality

I

IEA:
the International Energy Agency is an intergovernmental organization founded by the OECD to act as an energy policy advisor to its members (27 states in 2008) in their efforts to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy for their citizens, with a mandate incorporating the “Three E’s” of balanced energy policy making: energy security, economic development and environmental protection.
IFA:
the International Fertilizer Industry Association is the global association for companies in the fertilizer industry (450 members in 80 countries as of 2008), providing information about the industry worldwide, and the exchange of non-commercial information in the form of statistics and publications.
IFPRI:
the International Food Policy Research Institute is one of 15 international agricultural research centers that receives its principal funding from governments, private foundations, and international and regional organizations, most of which are members of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research.
IPCC:
the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is a scientific intergovernmental body set up by the World Meteorological Organisation and UNEP, to provide decision-makers and others with an objective source of information. The IPCC makes assessments of scientific, technical and socio-economic literature produced worldwide relevant to the understanding of the risk of human-induced climate change, projecting impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation.
IWRM (integrated water resources management):
the process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources, in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems.

J

joule:
a measure of energy equivalent to 0.23 calories. One megajoule (MJ) = 1 million (106) joules, 1 gigajoule (GJ) = 1000,000,000, (109) joules, 1 petajoule (PJ) = 1000,000,000,000,000 (1015) joules.
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